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Another technique involves the use of an ultraviolet light to view the surface discontinuities.
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As soon as the material is dry, the developer is applied. Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended. Then the surface must be allowed to dry. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication. Liquid penetrant testing Liquid penetrant inspection is the most popular method to check for surface cracks because it is simple and no special equipment e1650-2 required.
It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack. Active view current version of standard.
This might involve sandblasting, wire brushing, etc. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps: The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily qstm crack or a flaw.
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These inspections can increase the reliability of the part satm providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure. Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots. One of the most critical aspects of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities.
Some of the most popular NDE methods include: A scratch or a pore can easily be misinterpreted as a crack or flaw, and this can lead to unnecessary and costly astk. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated.
Non-destructive examination NDE is used to detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing. The surface then needs to be solvent cleaned to remove any greases or oils. Box Dubuque, IA Phone: With this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action.
An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1. Aztm reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on the surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels.
The developer brings the penetrating oil out of the discontinuities by a blotting action.
ASTM E(02) – [PDF Document]
Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J. Pre-clean the surfaces to be inspected. They can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and e1665-02, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass. The penetrant that is trapped in any discontinuities will glow when viewed under a black light.
Also, there are no universal acceptance criteria on the maximum allowable size of an indication. A suitable waiting time allows the penetrant to enter the surface discontinuities, and then excess penetrant can be removed.
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This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent. This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. Care must be taken not to overly clean and remove the penetrant from the discontinuities. This can take minutes after the developer is applied. They are nondestructive testing methods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination.
After application of the developer, the visual inspection is done with a black light. This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being tested.
In most cases, the discontinuities are visible to the naked eye without liquid penetrant testing. The purpose of this article is to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. The liquid penetrant examination just makes the discontinuities easier to see.
A common recommendation is to use solvent and not potable water when cleaning stainless steel parts, such as turbine rotors, that will be highly stressed when in service. Energy-Tech Magazine Contact us. The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer.
For this purpose there must be a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable. Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part.